The History of Graphic Design – part 2
Emergence of the design industry
In late 19th century Europe, especially in the United Kingdom, the stream began to separate graphic design from fine arts. The Piet Mondrian is known as the father of Graphic Design. He was a servant of the arts, and his use of networks inspired modern network system currently used in advertising, print and web layout.
The 1849 o Henry Cole was one of the greatest forces in design education in Great Britain, informing the government about the importance of design in his Journal of Design and Construction. He organized the Great Exhibition as a celebration of modern industrial technology and Victorian design. From 1981 to 1896 William Morris’ Kelmscott Press published books that are some of the most important graphic design products of the movement of the arts and arts practice and made a very lucrative business of creating books of great stylistic and refinement sold to the rich. The Morris proved that a market existed for jobs in Graphic Design and helped highlight the separation of design from production and the arts. The work of the Kelmscott Press is characterized by the persistence of the historical styles (genres). This historicism, however, was significant, as was meant to be the first significant reaction to the outdated state of graphic design in the 19th century. The work of Morris along with the rest of the Private Press movement, directly influenced Art Nouveau and is indirectly responsible for the development of graphic design in the early 20th century, in general..
The graphic design of the 20th century
Who coined the term “ Graphic Design” seems to cause a conflict. It has been attributed to Richard Guyatt, the British designer and academic, but another source suggests William Addison Dwiggins, an American book designer in the early 20th century. The marking on the London Subway is a classic example of design of the modern times and used a font designed by Edward Johnston in 1916. In the 1920s, Soviet constructivism applied the ‘intellectual production’ in different areas of production. The movement saw individualistic art as useless in revolutionary Russia and thus moved towards creating objects for utilitarian purposes. They designed buildings, theater presentations, posters, textiles, clothing, furniture, logos, menus, etc. C Jan Tschichold codified the principles of modern typography in his 1928 book The New Typography. He later condemned the philosophy adopted in this book as a fascist, but remained very influential.